Litigation Hold in Exchange 2010


Litigation hold (also known as a preservation order and legal hold) all have the same legal meaning; a stipulation requiring an individual or organization to preserve all data that could relate to a anticipated or pending legal action involving the individual or organization. The litigation hold responsibility is one of the biggest liabilities individuals and organizations have in the civil litigation process. If a litigation hold is ignored or insufficiently applied, the Judge will not tolerate excuses and the outcome can be a spoliation or destruction of evidence ruling which in turn can cause an adverse inference order be issued and loss of the case. Several third party eDiscovery applications provide for litigation hold placement on individual items to reduce over saving of non-responsive ESI.

In Exchange 2010, Microsoft suggests placing a custodian’s entire mailbox on litigation hold. In other words specifically putting a custodian’s mailbox on litigation hold ensures an indefinite retention on all content, even the content not relevant to the case at hand, in the user’s mailbox until the mailbox is removed from Legal Hold. This shotgun tactic does ensure all potentially responsive ESI is retained at the time of placement but many attorneys are leery of blindly placing a litigation hold on all content due to the possibility of over retaining ESI that is not responsive to the current case but could be in a future case.

To put a custodian’s mailbox on litigation hold in Exchange 2010, the person making that decision needs to be part of the “Discovery Management” Role in Exchange.  By default there are no approved auditors in the organization, including the Exchange Administrator, which has the right to put a user’s mailbox on litigation hold.  The Exchange Administrator can go into the Exchange Control Panel and give themselves (and others) the right to enable litigation hold for mailboxes.

Another caveat for Exchange 2010 litigation hold is that it could take upwards of 1 hour before a litigation hold takes effect on a given custodian’s mailbox. This is because the policy needs to be enacted on all messages and folders in the mailbox and be replicated through Active Directory. With litigation hold enabled, all messages, regardless of the organization’s retention policy will be retained until released.

Another aspect of placing effective litigation holds in Exchange 2010 is the question of PST files. PSTs are a long running problem area for corporate legal as well as the IT department. The problem is this; PSTs include email, attachments and metadata no longer preset within the Exchange email system. So when an auditor searches a custodian’s mailbox from Exchange 2010 for relevant emails and attachments, they aren’t able to search for any PSTs the custodian has on their local workstation.

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The case of the disappearing text messages


I ran across an interesting mobile phone application the other day called Tiger Text (also called the cheating spouse app). Tiger Text is an app that bills itself as a tool to help people “cover their tracks”, in this case tracks that are left when sending traditional text messages from phone to phone.  What Tiger Text does is enable a user to send text messages back and forth to others also using Tiger Text and not worry about the text message being found by someone else, because messages sent via Tiger Text will essentially self destruct within a specified timeframe.

When you send a text message using Tiger Text, the content of your message is never sent to the recipient’s phone as it does when you send a standard text message.  Since the message doesn’t reside on the recipient’s phone, but rather stored on Tiger Text’s servers, you are given full control when the messages are deleted from Tiger Text’s servers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As you can see from the screen shots above, once the messages are gone, they are gone.  You can set messages to ‘Delete on Read’ or set your own time limit such as 2 hours, 4 hours, etc. Keep in mind that both sender and recipient must have the Tiger Text application installed for the capability to work (there is a free reader if the other person doesn’t want to buy Tiger Text), and if a message is set to expire at a specified time period and it’s not read, then it’s gone forever. This “Delete” capability can be set from the menu shown below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The actual content of TigerText messages are erased from the sender’s phone, the recipient’s phone and all servers when the message expires. TigerText does not allow the user to copy or save a message, however if someone really wanted to they could video capture your TigerText, take a screen shot, or take a photo of their phone. TigerText cannot promise that your messages will not be copied by some alternative means. Be smart! Anyone can take a picture of a phone.

Tiger Text is available for iPhones, Blackberrys, Microsoft powered mobile phones and Android phones.

What’s this got to do with eDiscovery?

With above description in mind, it occurred to me that this application could cause some problems for the eDiscovery process.

  1. If a custodian is using this application while they are potentially a party to litigation and are using this app to send or receive information relevant to the case, are they guilty of destruction of evidence? In my opinion, absolutely!
  2. How could you place and enforce a litigation hold on this data? The answer is you can’t.
  3.  How would an organization collecting responsive data for eDiscovery even know to look for this capability? It all comes down to knowing the technology landscape and asking the right questions of custodians such as “do you utilize any applications or other processes on any computing devices including cell phones which automatically delete ESI?”
  4. So what’s an organization to do? The only thing you can do is forbid installing these kinds of applications on any organization assets and audit to see that custodians are following the policy. You obviously can’t do anything about what employees do with their own non-company owned devices except to reiterate that company related business should never be conducted over non-company owned devices (and its always a good idea to remind employees that if they do use their own devices for company business this will open their personal computers, phones etc to eDiscovery).

The main point is to be aware of these capabilities and to look for them when in eDiscovery.

Accidental Data Deletion Still Considered Spoliation


From an article posted to the Infosecurity-us.com website yesterday:

When litigation-based data management isn’t taken seriously dire consequences will occur.

When it comes to electronic discovery, if you fail to protect potentially relevant data and it’s destroyed, no matter the excuse, you have deprived the other side of their right to all relevant evidence to support their case and subsequently put them at a disadvantage.

What are your responsibilities when it comes to securing data that could be used against you in a current or future civil lawsuit? Judges today have little sympathy for accidental or shoddy data handling practices when it comes to protecting and turning over data in litigation.

Controlling your company’s information at all times is crucial if, or when, you get dragged into civil litigation. What is eDiscovery? Well, it’s not an afterhours team-building exercise. Electronic discovery (also called eDiscovery or Discovery) refers to any process (in any country) in which electronic data is sought, located, secured, and searched with the intent of using it as evidence in a civil or criminal legal case. The eDiscovery process can be carried out offline on a particular computer or it can be accomplished on a corporate network.

Since the new amendments to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (FRCP) were adopted in December 2006, judges expect that organizations in eDiscovery have complete control of their organization’s data and can fully respond to an eDiscovery request in days or weeks, not months or years.

The entire article can be read here

Discovering the public cloud in Outlook


In my blog “The coming collision of “free to the public cloud storage and eDiscovery” posted on June 23, I talked about these new free cloud storage options and how they could become a problem in the litigation/eDiscovery process. While researching that blog, I found an interesting capability with Microsoft Outlook and the various cloud storage offerings.

It is called a email folder URL redirect. Microsoft Outlook includes the capability to associate an email folder with a Web page. You can set up this association so that when you select the email folder, the Web page appears or the contents of the folder appear.

This capability can be useful when you want to include internal instructions or news about the organization. Another example would be a redirected folder pushed out to all in the organization announcing a litigation hold and answering questions about the hold, expectations, target content etc.  Although this capability provides the opportunity to create powerful public folder applications, non-approved scripts can be included on the Web page that access the Outlook object model, which exposes users to security risks so users should not be adding redirected email folders without IT’s approval.

So how does this capability, email folder URL redirection, relate to cloud storage? All four of the “free to the public cloud storage” offerings mentioned in the blog include a web page where files can be uploaded, viewed and downloaded. This means, for example, the Amazon Cloud Drive service could be a redirection target for an Outlook email folder.

Use the following steps to create and associate an e-mail folder with a Web view:

  • If you don’t already have a folder list showing in your Outlook front end, click on the View menu, then click Folder List.
  • Create a new folder in the folder list called Amazon Cloud by right clicking on the top most folders where you want to create the Cloud folder under. Then type in the new folder name Amazon Cloud

Figure 1: Create a new email folder called “Amazon Cloud”

  • In the Folder List, right-click the folder that you want to associate with a Web page, and then click Properties on the shortcut menu.
  • In the Property dialog box, click the Home Page tab.
  • In the Address box, type the URL for the Amazon Cloud drive web page.
  • Click to select the Show home page by default for this folder check box if you want the Web view active.

Figure 2: Input the URL address of the Amazon Cloud drive webpage

  • Click OK.

Now, by clicking on the new email folder, you will see the Amazon Cloud drive sigh in webpage.

Figure 3: Access and sign in to your Amazon Cloud drive webpage

Figure 4: You now have full access to your cloud storage from within Outlook

Some things you can now do include being able to open files from within your Amazon Cloud Drive. Once opened, data can be copied and pasted to a new email you might be creating.

Some things you can’t do directly include saving an email attachment directly to your cloud drive, dragging a file in your cloud to an email. For both these capabilities, an interim step is required. Namely coping files to your desktop first.

If that’s the case, is this capability useful? That depends… If you utilize a “free to the public cloud storage” service then you may want a more direct capability to view content in your cloud from within Outlook. This is somewhat of a stretch but you never know.

The main reason I’ve highlighted this capability is to illustrate how difficult the eDiscovery collection and litigation hold processes are getting when custodians have all these different options for storing (hiding) potentially responsive ESI.

Is the popular Dropbox file sharing application a huge eDiscovery risk?


First let me say the Dropbox file sharing program is one of the greatest applications I’ve run across in a long time and to date has approximately 25 million users world-wide. What is Dropbox? Dropbox is a cloud storage application which synchronizes files between computers and other electronic devices like iPhones. Installing Dropbox creates a special folder on your computer. Anything that you put in this folder is automatically synchronized with any other computer or iPhones on which you’ve installed the service. The files you drop in for synchronization are also located on a remote server, which means you can download files even when all of your other devices are turned off or offline. It’s easy to understand why instant synchronization across all your computers and iPhones is inherently fantastic. You drop a file into your Dropbox folder on say your work computer and it’s almost instantly on all your other computers (with an internet connection) and iPhones, be it at home, work, on the road or on vacation. What’s greater than that?

You need to be aware of a couple of potential problem areas if you are going to install Dropbox; first when you delete a file in your Dropbox folder on your computer it is not really deleted from the Dropbox cloud. It is classified as “Deleted” and will disappear out of your desktop folder but in the Dropbox cloud it still exists and can be “Undeleted”.

Dropbox saves a history of all deleted and earlier versions of files for 30 days for all Dropbox accounts by default. If you have the Pack-Rat add-on, Dropbox saves those files for as long as you have the Pack-Rat add-on. With Pack-Rat, you never have to worry about losing an old version of a file. You can permanently delete files inside of the 30 days but that must be done in your web account.

Another capability to be aware of is the “Events” tab in the web account.

The Events window shows you all of the recent(?) activity that has taken place in your account. This includes a wide variety of data such as the addition and deletion of files, moving files, adding and removing folders, sharing files and folders, linking computers to your account and more. At this point I’m not sure how long this history is available in a given account but in my account, the history is showing info back to when I created the account 6 months ago.

All of these great capabilities point out two areas of concern that organizations need to be aware of. First, could intellectual property theft get any easier? A worst case scenario would be the following; an employee decides to leave the company and wants to take some IP he or she has been working on for the last 7 months. The employee can simply drag the electronic files to his Dropbox folder on their company supplied computer and later that night access it from their computer at home or even worse, give their new employer the password to their Dropbox account and within seconds all that IP is sitting on the new employer’s desktop…it can happen in a matter of seconds, would the current employer even be able to tell if that IP was copied?

An even more interesting concern arises around eDiscovery risk. Would the fact that a custodian has or had at one time a Dropbox account, make all of their non-business supplied computers and iPhones a target of eDiscovery if they were a party to litigation in their organization?

An opposing counsel’s questioning might go something like this;

Opposing counsel: “Bill, do you now or did you during the time period in question have a Dropbox account?”

Bill: “Possibly…I’ve had one for sometime”

Opposing counsel: “While you’ve had the Dropbox account, have you ever copied work related documents or emails to your Dropbox account for whatever reason?”

Bill: “Yes I have”

Opposing counsel: “Could you have copied files that are relevant to the current case?”

Bill: “Maybe…I don’t remember”

Opposing counsel: “You don’t remember…is that the truth?

Bill: “Is that the truth? …YOU CAN’T HANDLE THE TRUTH!! (Jack Nicolson flashback)”

Opposing counsel: “Judge, I would like to include every computer and iPhone Bill has access to in the eDiscovery request as well as Bill’s  Dropbox account to view any deleted files as well as his “Events” history.”

Bill: “You’ve got to be kidding…Judge?”

Judge: “Do I look like I’m kidding? …Makes sense, approved”

Is the preceding example a possibility? Sure it is. So how would your organization defend against this type of eDiscovery risk?

In my experience, if you inform employees (in writing) that by using the Dropbox application from their work as well as personal computers and company supplied iPhone, they open themselves to having their personal home computers or any computer that had the Dropbox application installed on to be potentially accessed and reviewed by attorneys, most employee will refrain from installing it on their work related computers. It would also be a good insurance policy to create a computer use policy which includes a directive against installing the Dropbox application on work owned assets.

Again, let me stress that I think the Dropbox application is fantastic and has great uses for everyday life but employees and organizations need to be aware of the risks associated with it in litigation.

Adequately Securing ESI


The law firm of Gibson Dunn has just published their mid-year Electronic Discovery and Information Law Update and pointed out some interesting trends. The report can be viewed here.

From the Gibson Dunn report:

Of the 103 opinions Gibson Dunn analyzed, litigants sought sanctions in 30% (or 31)–compared to 42% in all of 2009–and received sanctions in 68% of those cases (or 21)–compared to 70% in all of 2009.

Courts have continued to impose monetary sanctions on outside counsel for failing to adequately supervise a client’s collection and preservation of electronically stored information (“ESI”). In re A&M Florida Properties, the court sanctioned both the client and its outside attorney, noting that although neither had acted in bad faith, sanctions were appropriate because outside counsel “simply did not understand the technical depths to which electronic discovery can sometimes go.”

Similarly, in Wilson v. Thorn Energy, LLC, No. 08 Civ. 9009 (FM), 2010 WL 1712236 (S.D.N.Y. Mar. 15, 2010) (Maas, Mag. J.), the court imposed an adverse inference sanction for gross negligence where the defendants had lost all data relevant to a large transaction when a USB drive was erased.  Id. at *3.  The Wilson decision declined to apply the protections of Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 37(e), which provides a “safe harbor” “for failing to provide electronically stored information lost as a result of the routine, good-faith operation of an electronic information system,” as the erasure occurred outside of any routine document management procedures.  Id.

Based on these findings, sanctions for eDiscovery failures are still rising and the courts are holding outside counsel responsible for the discovery practices of their clients.

The Wilson v. Thorn Energy case is interesting for the fact that the responsive data in question was stored entirely on a “USB Thumb drive” with no backup. This brings up the question; what is an acceptable procedure for securing responsive or potentially responsive ESI? Is dumping it to a legal department share drive enough? How about storing it solely on a backup tape? How about putting it on an attorney’s laptop hard disk? The main question that I will address in the next blog post is; What do you need to do to ensure the ESI will be available later on?

Backups are an effective eDiscovery resource, if it’s the right backup


I have always been told relying on backups for eDiscovery purposes is a costly and time consuming mistake.

Searching through backup tapes or even a disk-based backup for eDiscovery is difficult. Imagine restoring 22 200 GB backup tapes of your employee workstations and

Consider an eDiscovery request which asks for any files on 73 custodian workstations which contain the terms “Mimosa” and “Iron Mountain” that were created or accessed between Feb 19 2008 and June 3 2010, all the while meeting a 30 day deadline from the court to produce. How would you quickly determine what if any responsive content exists on those 73 custodians laptops/desktops?

The scenario I laid out above is not a corner-case, made-up situation. I have seen this many times. Many of you will recognize a situation very close to this.

Now consider one additional requirement to the above scenario… you must insure any responsive ESI on those workstations are secure and not deleted (litigation hold) by the custodian starting right now.

Active content on custodian workstations and laptops is the single biggest risk when facing litigation hold and eDiscovery responsibilities for most organizations. The usual processes most organizations follow for custodian resource collection is either:

  1. Custodian led collection: the organizations legal department sends out a detailed email to all custodians’ involved asking them to search for specific content on their system (including any PSTs) and forward any results to the legal department. Many opposing counsel’s have a problem with this process

or

  1. The legal department creates collection teams which consist of a legal department employee and an IT employee to visit each custodian’s workspace to look for responsive ESI, usually including the imaging of the custodian’s hard disks. This imaging of the custodian’s hard disk takes hours and then has to be filtered somewhere else to look for responsive content.

What if you could utilize your centrally managed custodian workstation/laptop backup process for eDiscovery purposes?

Iron Mountain has addressed this major eDiscovery risk and cost with its newly announced Connected® Classify & Collect, a solution which simplifies the collection process for distributed PC ESI to comply with a legal hold request as well as discovery. The Connected Classify & Collect offering helps businesses to quickly find relevant data on laptop and desktop computers to meet litigation and compliance requirements.

The Connected® Classify & Collect offering makes laptop and desktop data easily visible, searchable and usable. It also protects data and prevents accidental deletion to support eDiscovery or internal investigations. Its enterprise-class data-classification capabilities give administrators visibility into vast amounts of data stored on enterprise PCs and allow them to lower eDiscovery costs by quickly collecting relevant information to be used for early-case assessments and first-pass reviews.

An interesting twist to this capability is the fact that even if the custodian is disconnected from the network, Classify & Collect can discover against the existing centrally managed backup of each custodian’s workstation or laptop. The next time the custodian connects to the network, additional searching will be accomplished automatically in the background on the custodian laptop.

Additionally, the Connected Classify & Collect offering helps businesses establish a thorough and defensible collection process with its ability to track all activities, including the search terms and documents returned to support internal reviews.